Recycling and utilization of scrap tires
The specialists of Technokomplex who have been developing the equipment for recycling and utilization of scrap tires for many years have got acquainted with the most methods of these hazardous wastes utilization. Before starting activity in this field we recommend you to ask yourself several questions: what in particular is meant under the term “tire”? Why is it necessary to utilize tires? How can tires be recycled and utilized? Can this process be economically sound?
The main components of an automobile tire.
The tire construction has undergone significant change since it was invented in 1846. It may seem the most achievements in chemistry and physics were focused specifically on modernization of tires. Today this type of mechanical rubber goods consists of more that 20 components. Many of these components have different composition and characteristics, but during the process of tire manufacture they sinter together into a single material that, in the end, provides traction between the vehicle and the road.
However when addressing the issue of utilization all these numerous components are passed into the background, leaving only the terms “tire”, “tube” and “bead” on the foreground, as this level of feedstock detalization becomes significant.
Tire – is an elastic cover of rubber, metal and fabric that fits around the wheel rim.
The words “rubber”, “metal” and “fabric” have great importance for the tire dictionary definition. By “fabric” and “metal” tire components a wire is usually understood. A wire can be metallic (in case of trucks) and fabric or polymeric (in case of cars). These components influence the quality and composition of the processed products, that are going to be further described.
Tube – is a closed rubber pipe with faucet that fits inside the tubed tire.
Bead ring - is a basis of the whole tire construction.
Tire tube is made of elastic air-proof rubber that can also be utilized. The tires that do not have tubes are called “tubeless”. The bead rings provide tire sealing and fixation on the tire disk. Bead rings of large vehicles can be separated in a special way in case certain methods of utilization are applied.
The question of tires recycling and utilization.
Now we come up to discussing the ways of tires recycling and utilization. Several new methods of this hazardous wastes recycling and utilization were introduced and applied since the scientists had proven the harmful effect of tires storage and burning.
To start with we should figure out the difference between terms “recycling” and “utilization”. Recycling is a re-use of industrial wastes or garbage, secondary resources that can not find direct implementation, production and consumption wastes (Big dictionary of Economics).
It may seem the word “recycling” is more appropriate in our case, but “utilization” equally corresponds to the process, as secondary usage of scrap tires without their prior recovery is the same as the wrong storage.
Why is tire utilization so important? The fact is the period of tires decomposition in the ground is about 100 – 150 years. In course of decomposition hazardous chemical compounds come into atmosphere, soil and water and pollute the environment. The same process occurs in case of burning tires at the landfills. Even the simple storage of scrap tires is not safe as they immediately turn into the house for many insects and small animals that are infection carriers. Taking into account the growth rates of this type of wastes it becomes evident the recycling of scrap tires is one of the most important challenge of nature protection.
Methods of scrap tires recycling.
Today there are two main types of scrap tires recycling: physical and chemical.
The first type is the most widespread, for example, mechanical processing. The product of such type of recycling is a granulated rubber crumb that can be used in numerous applications including additive to non-duty mechanical rubber goods, road surfacing, roofing material, etc. In this case 100 percent of tire is utilized.
Chemical ways of scrap tires recycling include burning of rubber chips, chemical dissolution of tires and pyrolysis. In every case 100 percent of tire is utilized. But the pyrolysis is considered to be the most efficient as it allows obtaining the marketable products in course of chemical reaction.
Pyrolysis (from ancient greek πῦρ – fire, flame and λύσις - separation) – is a thermal decomposition of organic and non-organic compounds. (Chemistry dictionary).
According to Hazardous Waste Classification under the Federal Law on “Production and Consumption Wastes” tires have the fourth class of hazard. This means only organizations that hold the licence for hazardous waste management are allowed to utilize tires.
Carbon black, liquid fuel, metal wiring and gas. The gas is usually fully used to support the pyrolysis equipment operation. Carbon black can be used as an additive in the production of mechanical rubber goods, can be further processed into activated carbon and soot, can be used as a colorant, etc. Liquid fuel can be used as a fuel for burners with special nozzles or can be further processed into diesel, mazut and low-octane petrol fractions.
Thus, using the pyrolysis technology can not only save the environment but also become an instrument of successful business.